University of Konstanz

The vision behind e-David is to build a painting machine that mimics human painters and distributes real paint on a canvas. e-David (Electronic Drawing Apparatus for Vivid Interactive Display) is an ordinary industrial welding robot, which is typically used in the automobile manufacturing industry. We combine the machine with sensors, a camera and a control computer. A computer program continuously produces drawing commands that are executed by the machine. • VISUAL FEEDBACK: Since we work with real materials and brushes, the output of the machine is never perfect. Therefore we have established a visual control loop using a camera that captures the output of the machine. New drawing commands are computed based on the difference between what is on the canvas and what we want to have on the canvas. This visual feedback also allows us to correct errors on the canvas induced by paints and imprecisions of the painting process. This way we gradually approach a given input image. Using this setup, we aim to investigate human “optimization processes” and to explore to what extent such processes can be formulated using algorithms. • TEAM MEMBERS: Prof. Oliver Deussen, PhD candidate Thomas Lindemeier. Since 2016, painter Liat Grayver ( has been collaborating with us and joined our project for the RobotArt contest. MORE INFO: please visit our project website,

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